Year 2016, Volume 2 , Issue 3, Pages 199 - 208 2016-12-10

The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850
The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850

Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Galalaye [1]


The national thought of Kurdish renaissance has been delayed due to long term conflicts among Kurdish Emirates, in particular in the first half of the 19th century. Along with other nations under Ottoman Empire and its renaissancebeginning in 1839 and later years by Sultan Abdul-Majeed while Kurdish society was encountering backwardness, subordinate in policy, economy and education aspects. Consisting first half of the 19th century, three quarters of this half includes quarrels and fighting for power between brothers, uncle and cousin, between cousins within the same family orbetween two different Emirates attempting to continue their dictatorship in Southern Kurdistan. Ottoman Empire was waiting their destruction on the borders when they were awaken, it happened exactly after 1835 when Ottoman commander Rasheed Pasha attacked Botan, Soran and Badinan Emirates in 1836. Ottoman Empire could dissolve and end the power of both Emirates of Soran and Badinan in six years. Ottoman power returning to the central lands of northern Kurdistan andinterests of countries such Britain, France, Russia and Germany played an important role in ending Kurdish Emirates in Southern Kurdistan. Thus, continual agreements between Ottoman and Qajaryempires especially the last one which was Erzurum Agreement in 1847 resulted into the process of Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan in the first half of the 19th century. 

The national thought of Kurdish renaissance has been delayed due to long term conflicts among Kurdish Emirates, in particular in the first half of the 19th century. Along with other nations under Ottoman Empire and its renaissancebeginning in 1839 and later years by Sultan Abdul-Majeed while Kurdish society was encountering backwardness, subordinate in policy, economy and education aspects. Consisting first half of the 19th century, three quarters of this half includes quarrels and fighting for power between brothers, uncle and cousin, between cousins within the same family orbetween two different Emirates attempting to continue their dictatorship in Southern Kurdistan. Ottoman Empire was waiting their destruction on the borders when they were awaken, it happened exactly after 1835 when Ottoman commander Rasheed Pasha attacked Botan, Soran and Badinan Emirates in 1836. Ottoman Empire could dissolve and end the power of both Emirates of Soran and Badinan in six years. Ottoman power returning to the central lands of northern Kurdistan andinterests of countries such Britain, France, Russia and Germany played an important role in ending Kurdish Emirates in Southern Kurdistan. Thus, continual agreements between Ottoman and Qajaryempires especially the last one which was Erzurum Agreement in 1847 resulted into the process of Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan in the first half of the 19th century. 

  • ١-د.خلیل اینالجك(2002). تاریخ الدولة العثمانية من النشوء إلى الإنحدار، ت: د.محمد.م.الأرناؤوط، دار المدار الإسلامي، بيروت.
  • ٢-د.سعد بشیر اسکندر(2008). قيام النظام الإماراتي في كردستان وسقوطه، تقديم:م.جعفر، السليمانية، منشورات مؤسسة زين لإحياء التراث الوثائقي والصحفي الكردي.
  • 3-د.عبدالعزيز سليمان نوار(1968). تاريخ العراق الحديث، دار الكتاب العربي اللطباعة و النشر، القاهرة.
  • 4-د.هۆگر طاهر توفیق(2012) الكُرد والمسألة الأرمنیة 1887-1920، دار اراس للطباعە و النشر، أربیل.
  • 5- الأب بطرس حداد ( ترجمة و تعليق) (2011). رحلة دوبريه إلى العراق 1807-1809م، الشركة بيت الوراق للنشر المحدودة، بغداد.
  • 6-سليمان أبو عزالدين(2009). إبراهيم باشا في سوريا، تقديم و دراسة و مراجعة و تعليق: لطيفة محمد سالم، دار الشروق، القاهرة.
  • 7-مؤلف مجهول(2010). روضة الأخبار في ذكر أفراد الأخبار، تحقيق: د.عماد عبدالسلام رؤوف، مؤسسة ذين لإحياء التراث الوثائقي و الصحفي الكردي، السليمانية،.
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Author: Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Galalaye
Institution: Soran University
Country: Iraq


Dates

Publication Date : December 10, 2016

Bibtex @research article { ijoks278426, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2016}, volume = {2}, pages = {199 - 208}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.278426}, title = {The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850}, key = {cite}, author = {Galalaye, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim} }
APA Galalaye, M . (2016). The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850. International Journal of Kurdish Studies , 2 (3) , 199-208 . DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.278426
MLA Galalaye, M . "The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 2 (2016 ): 199-208 <http://ijoks.com/en/issue/26443/278426>
Chicago Galalaye, M . "The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 2 (2016 ): 199-208
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850 AU - Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Galalaye Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.278426 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.278426 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 199 EP - 208 VL - 2 IS - 3 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.278426 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.278426 Y2 - 2016 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850 %A Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Galalaye %T The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850 %D 2016 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 2 %N 3 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.278426 %U 10.21600/ijoks.278426
ISNAD Galalaye, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim . "The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 2 / 3 (December 2016): 199-208 . https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.278426
AMA Galalaye M . The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2016; 2(3): 199-208.
Vancouver Galalaye M . The impact of the power struggle in the Renaissance delayed national thought in South Kurdistan 1800-1850. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2016; 2(3): 208-199.