Year 2020, Volume 6 , Issue 1, Pages 104 - 119 2020-01-25

Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy
Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy

Mehmet Akif KOÇ [1]


The Middle East has emerged as a new stage for Moscow’s increasingly active foreign policy due to its geopolitical relevance, close proximity to Russian borders, and abundance of energy resources. Although Russian interests in the Middle East are generally not considered vital and existential relative to post-Soviet geography and Europe, influence in this region is still essential for Moscow to regain its superpower status. Russia employs a combination of hard- and soft-power elements toward Middle Eastern actors. To this end, the instrumentalization of energy cooperation and arms sales is crucial for Russia to advance its goals in the region. The Kremlin also compartmentalizes its relations with almost all regional actors and establishes business-oriented networks to gain prestige, cultivate political influence, and benefit financially. After reorganizing the domestic political and economic power structure, Russian policy-makers have successfully mobilized state-owned energy and arms companies, such as Rosoboronexport, Rosatom, Rosneft, Gazprom, and Lukoil, as remarkable pillars of Russian policy toward the Middle East.

The Middle East has emerged as a new stage for Moscow’s increasingly active foreign policy due to its geopolitical relevance, close proximity to Russian borders, and abundance of energy resources. Although Russian interests in the Middle East are generally not considered vital and existential relative to post-Soviet geography and Europe, influence in this region is still essential for Moscow to regain its superpower status. Russia employs a combination of hard- and soft-power elements toward Middle Eastern actors. To this end, the instrumentalization of energy cooperation and arms sales is crucial for Russia to advance its goals in the region. The Kremlin also compartmentalizes its relations with almost all regional actors and establishes business-oriented networks to gain prestige, cultivate political influence, and benefit financially. After reorganizing the domestic political and economic power structure, Russian policy-makers have successfully mobilized state-owned energy and arms companies, such as Rosoboronexport, Rosatom, Rosneft, Gazprom, and Lukoil, as remarkable pillars of Russian policy toward the Middle East.

  • A.S. Sonmez and S. Cobanoglu, “The Use of Energy Resources as Foreign Policy Tools: The Russian Case”, European Scientific Journal, April 2016 edition, vol.12, No.11
  • Randall Newnham, “Oil, carrots, and sticks: Russia’s energy resources as a foreign policy tool”, Journal of Eurasian Studies 2 (2011)
  • Giedrius Česnakas, “Energy resources as the tools of foreign policy: the case of Russia”, Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review vol. 35 (2016). DOI: 10.1515/lfpr-2016-0002.
  • Rem Korteweg, “Energy as a tool of foreign policy of authoritarian states, in particular Russia”, EU Parliament Think Tank Report, last modified on April 27, 2018, available at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=EXPO_STU(2018)603868
  • R. Nistico, V. Bove and C. Deiana, “Global arms trade and oil dependence”, Journal of Law Economics and Organization 34(2) · February 2018, pp. 272–299.
  • M. Duric and T. Lansford, “US-Russian Competition in the Middle East: Convergences and Divergences in Foreign Security Policy”, in J. Covarrubias and T. Lansford (Eds.), Strategic Interests in the Middle East: Opposition and Support for US Foreign Policy, (New York: Routledge).
  • Alexey Malashenko, Russia and the Arab Spring, (Moscow: Carnegie Moscow Center,2013),.
  • Dmitry Trenin, ”Russia in the Middle East: Moscow’s Objectives, Priorities, and Policy Drivers”, Carnegie Moscow Center (April 5, 2016), retrieved January 20, 2019 from https://carnegie.ru/2016/04/05/russia-in-middle-east-moscow-s-objectives-priorities-and-policy-drivers-pub-63244 .
  • Anna Borshchevskaya, Russia in the Middle East: Motives, Consequences, Prospects. (Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy - Policy Focus, 2016),.
  • Paul Stronski, and Richard Sokolsky, The Return of Global Russia: An Analytical Framework. (Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Paper, 2017),.
  • Alexander Shumilin, Russia’s Diplomacy in the Middle East: Back to Geopolitics, Institut français des relations internationals (IFRI), (May 1, 2016), retrieved January 21, 2019 from https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/rnv93_version_uk_final_protege.pdf .
  • James Sladden, Becca Wasser, Ben Connable, and Sarah Grand-Clement, Russian Strategy in the Middle East. (Washington: RAND Corporation - Perspective Paper, 2017).
  • Ian Bremmer and Samuel Charap, “The Siloviki in Putin's Russia: Who They Are and What They Want”, The Washington Quarterly, 2007, 30:1, pp. 83–92, DOI: 10.1162/wash.2006-07.30.1.83.
  • Vanand Meliksetian, “Rosneft’s Middle East Strategy Explained”, Oilprice, (November 10, 2018), retrieved January 18, 2019 from https://oilprice.com/Geopolitics/International/Rosnefts-Middle-East-Strategy-Explained.html.
  • Dmitry Zhdannikov, “The great Russian oil game in Iraqi Kurdistan”. Reuters, (April 19, 2018), retrieved January 11, 2019 from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-rosneft-iraq-insight/the-great-russian-oil-game-in-iraqi-kurdistan-idUSKBN1HQ1R3 ; Meliksetian, “Rosneft’s Middle East Strategy Explained”.
  • Rosneft Annual Report -2017, Rosneft (2017), pp. 159–160, retrieved from https://www.rosneft.com/upload/site2/document_file/a_report_2017_eng.pdf.
  • Carole Nakhle, “Russia’s energy diplomacy in the Middle East”, in N.Popescu and S. Secrieru (Eds.), Russia’s Return to the Middle East: Building Sandcastles? (Chaillot Paper No: 146, July 2018),.
  • Nikita Minin and Tomas Vlcek, “Determinants and Considerations of Rosatom’s External Strategy”, Energy Strategy Reviews, Vol. 17 (September 2017), pp. 37–44.
  • Louis-Marie Clouet, Rosoboronexport, Spearhead of the Russian Arms Industry. (Paris: IFRI Russia Report, Russie.nei.Visions No: 22, 2007).
  • Richard Connoly and Cecilie Sendstad, Russia’s Role as an Arms Exporter: The Strategic and Economic Importance of Arms Exports for Russia. (London: Chatham House - Research Paper, 2017).
  • “SIPRI Yearbook 2018: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security”, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), (2018), retrieved January 15, 2019 from https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2018-06/yb_18_summary_en_0.pdf.
  • Vladimir Putin, “Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation”, (April 25, 2005), retrieved January 2, 2019 from http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/22931.
  • Grubliauskas, Julijus and Rühle, Michael (2018). Energy security: a critical concern for Allies and partners. NATO Review, (July 26, 20118), retrieved January 21, 2020 from https://www.nato.int/docu/review/articles/2018/07/26/energy-security-a-critical-concern-for-allies-and-partners/index.html
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-5179-6027
Author: Mehmet Akif KOÇ (Primary Author)
Institution: SOCIAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF ANKARA
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : January 25, 2020

Bibtex @research article { ijoks670457, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2020}, volume = {6}, pages = {104 - 119}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.670457}, title = {Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy}, key = {cite}, author = {KOÇ, Mehmet Akif} }
APA KOÇ, M . (2020). Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy. International Journal of Kurdish Studies , 6 (1) , 104-119 . DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.670457
MLA KOÇ, M . "Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6 (2020 ): 104-119 <http://ijoks.com/en/issue/50854/670457>
Chicago KOÇ, M . "Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6 (2020 ): 104-119
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy AU - Mehmet Akif KOÇ Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.670457 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.670457 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 104 EP - 119 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.670457 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.670457 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy %A Mehmet Akif KOÇ %T Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy %D 2020 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.670457 %U 10.21600/ijoks.670457
ISNAD KOÇ, Mehmet Akif . "Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6 / 1 (January 2020): 104-119 . https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.670457
AMA KOÇ M . Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2020; 6(1): 104-119.
Vancouver KOÇ M . Russia in the Middle East: A New Perspective on the Corporatization of Foreign Policy. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2020; 6(1): 119-104.