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## Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule

#### Mahdi Mohammed QADER [1] , Fatah Bahram KHADER [2]

##### 37 61

Since the late nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, Erbil has been the administrative district of the province of Mosul. The fertility of its soil, its climate, and its location was economical and prestigious — its inhabitants have relied on agriculture to secure their lives. As they were interested in the production of some of the crops and crops that this research focused on in quantities and varieties of those products and crops accurately. Some were self-sustaining, such as wheat, barley, rice, as well as some other cash crops like tobacco and cotton. In addition, it has also been interested in the production of fruits and livestock.  There is no doubt that each of these economic journals did not depart from natural and human problems and obstacles, And it was found to have affected the quantities and varieties of products and crops, and this has a negative impact on the lives of farmers.

As for the financial struggle in Erbil, the established financial system was the same as that which existed during the days of the Ottoman Empire. In addition to the archaic system, the Baathist regime had taken over Kurdish society — The lands of Erbil were divided into different types depending on the royal stratification of the Ottoman Empire, In the last section of this paper, we discuss the circumstances surrounding the residents of Erbil in the years of the First World War.

We have relied on sources from the Ottoman Empire, the British government, and a number of Kurdish and Arab sources.

Economic conditions, Province of Erbil, Ottoman Empire, British governments, Kurdish
 Bibtex @research article { ijoks516506, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2019}, volume = {5}, pages = {211 - 236}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.516506}, title = {Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule}, key = {cite}, author = {QADER, Mahdi Mohammed and KHADER, Fatah Bahram} } APA QADER, M , KHADER, F . (2019). Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 5 (1), 211-236. DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.516506 MLA QADER, M , KHADER, F . "Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 5 (2019): 211-236 Chicago QADER, M , KHADER, F . "Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 5 (2019): 211-236 RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule AU - Mahdi Mohammed QADER , Fatah Bahram KHADER Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.516506 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.516506 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 211 EP - 236 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.516506 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.516506 Y2 - 2018 ER - EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule %A Mahdi Mohammed QADER , Fatah Bahram KHADER %T Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule %D 2019 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 5 %N 1 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.516506 %U 10.21600/ijoks.516506 ISNAD QADER, Mahdi Mohammed , KHADER, Fatah Bahram . "Economic conditions in the province of Erbil since the late Ottoman rule". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 5 / 1 (January 2019): 211-236. https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.516506