Yıl 2018, Cilt 4 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 504 - 530 2018-08-25


aghdad city is considered as one of the most prominent places for Kurdish intellectual movement. Residing the Kurds in Baghdad has a deep-rooted history that belongs to the stage of pre-establishing Iraq as a state and recognizing Baghdad as its capital; this basically associates with many historical and geographical factors. The geographical factor is one of the noticeable factors that are related to the closeness of Kurdish territories to Baghdad. However, the intellectual group among the residents has had a crucial role in establishing the intellectual movement at the city. Along with its long history, the movement has also been impacted by so many political events after the establishment of Iraq. The 1958 revolution, for instance, created an environment where freedom of publishing and expressing national and political opinions has been liberated. This had its own reflection on a variety of aspects in Kurdish language and literature. Following the outbreak of Kurds’ September revolution in 1961, there were still some literary activities existed in the city, like continual issuing of some intellectual magazines, such as Hiwa (1957-1963) and Ronahi (1960-1962). However, between 1963 and 1967, the Kurdish intellectual movement faced a harsher circumstance; The Kurdish Victory Club, Hiwa Magazine, and the majority of the Kurdish magazines and newspapers were closed, a few number of Kurdish books and booklets were printed, and The Department of Kurdish at College of Arts was threatened with closure. Between 1967 and 1970 a suitable political situation was attained for the Kurds, as a result of the treaty negotiated in 1966 between the Iraqi government and Kurdish presidency. The issuance of each Brayi (Al-Ta’khi) newspaper in 1967 and 1968 and Bayan magazine in 1969 was the output of that political change. As of the 1970 Treaty, a new stage was achieved for Kurdish intellectual movement. This stage is considered as a golden era in reliving different aspects of Kurdish intellectual.

The city of Baghdad hosted a wide range of this progress, even, to a great extent, became the center of evolution for Kurdish intellectual movement. 

Kurdish Intellectual Movement, Bagdad, Kurdish Literary Movement
  • Abbas, A. (2001). Memories of 30 years of Kurdish journalism, 1961-1991. Baghdad. Abdul Salam, I. (2009). Al-Takiya al-khalidiya in Baghdad. The academy of sciences, 13. Erbil. Adrienne, D. (2011). Trip to Iraq, 1807-1809. Beirut. Al-Alawi, Z. (2009). History of the Faili Kurds and the future of horizons. Beirut. Al-Haidari, S. (2004). Selection of notes. Sulaymaniyah. Alussi, S. (2012). The complete Nippur journey to Iraq. Al-Warraq Publishing. Beirut. Amin, A. (2007). Kurdish members in the Irai parliament during the royal era, 1925-1958. Erbil. Baban, J. (2006). Iraqi Kurdish famous men. Sulaymaniyah. Baban, J. (1975). Forgotten history-youth association. Roshinbiri new, 39. Baharkaiy, T. (2010). History of Kurdish shcolars (Vol. 1). Erbil. Barzinji, T. (2008). The impacts of Rwanga in the novelty of Kurdish poetry. Sulaymaniyah. Fayli, N. (2009). History of tribes’ origins and folklore. National Heritage. Erbil. Fossil, P. (1968). Life in Iraq between 1814 and 1914. Baghdad. (Fade, A, Trans.). Baghdad. Haydari, M. (2014). Dictionary of immortal names (Vol.1). Erbil. Himdadi, H. (2011). Rwanga movement and its impacts on the poets of the city of Erbil in the seventies and eighties. Kirkuk. Jelal, M. and Rashid, S. (2017). Memories: from childhood to the republican palace. Sulaymaniyah. Kakasur, M. (2000). The role of Kurds’ political and cultural oppressors in Southern Kurdistan, 1921-1945. Erbil. Karim, A. & Debagh, T. (2006). The struggle. Sulaymaniyah. Khailani, A. (2014). Memories. Khayat, J. (2007). John Arthur’s views in Iraq through the book of “Europian travelers in Iraq”. Beirut. Khaznadar, M. (2010). History of Kurdish literature (Vols. 3-4). Erbil. Mohammed, E. (2005). Brayeti newspaper 1967-1974. Erbil. Mohammed, K. (2005). The Faili Kurds between the campaigns and politics of torture. Erbil. Mohammed, M. & Jawdat, K. (2003). Faculty of arts nucleus of Baghdad University. Adab-Al-Farahidi, 17. Mohammed, R. (2014). Role of kurdish ministers in the royal government of Iraq, 1945-1958. Salahaddin University. Najjar, J. (1991). The Ottoman administration in the state of Baghdad, from the reign of Wali Medhat Pasha to the end of Ottoman authority, 1869-1917. Cairo. Najar, H. (2016). Intellectual movement of Erbil, 1958-1975. Erbil. Nariman, M. (1977). Bibliography of Kurdish books, 1787-1975. Baghdad. Nariman, M. (1989). Bibliography of Hawkari newspaper, 1970-1974. Baghdad. Nariman, M. (1994). Memories. Baghdad. Raouf, A. (2009). Safa Al-din Issa Al-Bandaji; His life and antiquities, 1788-1866. Erbil. Salih, R. (2001). Diari Kurdistan, 1925-1926. Sulaymaniyah. Siddiq, T. (2012). Kurd and Kurdistan during the Islamic caliphate era. Erbil. Tovee, M. (2010). Word of loyalty in memory of Hafiz-Al-Qazi. Rojname nws, 20. Zana, X. (1980). At Baghdad in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. Roshinbiri new, 82.
  • Magazines and Newspapers Adibi Eraqi (magazine), Baghdad, V:(1), july1960. Al-wqaeeh Al-Iraqie, V:(1917), September 1970. Deng u bas (Newspaper), Baghdad, V:(231), (232),(233), (234),(235),(236), February1967. Hawkari (Newspaper), Baghdad, V(15),April 1970, V:(17), May 1970, V:(22) June1970, V:(7), February 1971, V(13) April 1971, V:(16), V: (21)May 1971, V:(39) October 1971, V:(44) September 1971, V:(111) April 1971, V: (125) July 1972. Hiwa (magazine), Baghdad, V:15, V: (2) August1958, V:(3) September 1958, V:(1) November 1959, V: (6-7) November 1959, V:(8) March 1959, V: (11-12) June and July 1959, V:(30) October 1960, V:(31) January 1961. Koleji Edebiat (magazine), Baghdad, V:15 1971-1972, V:17 1974, V:18 1974. Kori zaniary kurd (magazine), Baghdad, V:(1) 1973, V:(1-2) 1974. Nariman, M. (1983). Bibliography of Bayan magazine, 9. Peshkewtn (magazine), Baghdad, V:(20), September 1958, V:110, April1960. Ronahee, (magazine), Baghdad, V: (1) 1969, V:(2) july1960, V:(3) 1960, V:(5-6) 1961. Roshnbiri nwe (magazine), Baghdad, V:(24), (25) july 1974, V:(26),(28) Augest 1974. Twtn (magazine), Baghdad, V:1-2, May 1969, V:3, Desember1969.
  • Interviews Abdullah,A. (2016,October 5 ). Personal interview. Abdullah,A.(2017, Febrwary 19). Personal interview. Abdulrezaq,B. (2017,July 13) . Personal interview. Kake mem,B. (2017,October 22) . Personal interview. Kamil, Z. (2017,April 23). Personal interview. Kurdistan,M. (2016,October 6) . Personal interview. Momtaz, H. (2016,October 1) . Personal interview. Mustafa,S. (2017, April 23) . Personal interview.
Birincil Dil en
Bölüm Makaleler

Yazar: Azad Ubed SALLİH
Kurum: Salahaddin University
Ülke: Iraq

Yazar: Hoshang Salih Muhamad SHARİ-AL-NAJAR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Salahaddin University
Ülke: Iraq


Başvuru Tarihi : 24 Ocak 2018
Kabul Tarihi : 25 Mart 2018
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 25 Ağustos 2018

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijoks454473, journal = {International Journal of Kurdish Studies}, issn = {2149-2751}, eissn = {2149-2751}, address = {}, publisher = {Hasan KARACAN}, year = {2018}, volume = {4}, pages = {504 - 530}, doi = {10.21600/ijoks.454473}, title = {Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975"}, key = {cite}, author = {Sallih, Azad Ubed and Shari-al-najar, Hoshang Salih Muhamad} }
APA Sallih, A , Shari-al-najar, H . (2018). Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975" . International Journal of Kurdish Studies , 4 (2) , 504-530 . DOI: 10.21600/ijoks.454473
MLA Sallih, A , Shari-al-najar, H . "Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975"" . International Journal of Kurdish Studies 4 (2018 ): 504-530 <https://ijoks.com/tr/pub/issue/38905/454473>
Chicago Sallih, A , Shari-al-najar, H . "Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975"". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 4 (2018 ): 504-530
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975" AU - Azad Ubed Sallih , Hoshang Salih Muhamad Shari-al-najar Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.454473 DO - 10.21600/ijoks.454473 T2 - International Journal of Kurdish Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 504 EP - 530 VL - 4 IS - 2 SN - 2149-2751-2149-2751 M3 - doi: 10.21600/ijoks.454473 UR - https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.454473 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Kurdish Studies Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975" %A Azad Ubed Sallih , Hoshang Salih Muhamad Shari-al-najar %T Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975" %D 2018 %J International Journal of Kurdish Studies %P 2149-2751-2149-2751 %V 4 %N 2 %R doi: 10.21600/ijoks.454473 %U 10.21600/ijoks.454473
ISNAD Sallih, Azad Ubed , Shari-al-najar, Hoshang Salih Muhamad . "Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975"". International Journal of Kurdish Studies 4 / 2 (Ağustos 2018): 504-530 . https://doi.org/10.21600/ijoks.454473
AMA Sallih A , Shari-al-najar H . Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975". Kurdish Studies. 2018; 4(2): 504-530.
Vancouver Sallih A , Shari-al-najar H . Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975". International Journal of Kurdish Studies. 2018; 4(2): 504-530.
IEEE A. Sallih ve H. Shari-al-najar , "Kurdish Literary Movement in Baghdad City"1958 -1975"", International Journal of Kurdish Studies, c. 4, sayı. 2, ss. 504-530, Ağu. 2018, doi:10.21600/ijoks.454473